In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an Assisted Reproductive Technology, used in the treatment of Infertility. This involves taking out of the eggs from the ovaries, and fertilizing them with sperms in the laboratory. The pregnancy grows in the laboratory for 2-5 days and then it is transferred into the uterus. The success rate of IVF is 40-50%.
For the success of IVF procedure, the pregnancy has to get implanted successfully into the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium). Implantation of pregnancy is a complex process and requires a synchronous development and interaction between pregnancy and endometrium. Clinically implantation is successful when a gestation sac is seen on ultrasonography.
Implantation failure is a term used when there has never been evidence of implantation, hCG not detectable, or when there is evidence of implantation, detectable hCG, but it does not respond to the formation of a gestational sac visible on ultrasonography . Recurrent Implantation failure is an important cause of Recurrent IVF Failures.
The implantation failure can be due to